The sun’s corona is a bright spot that is about twice the diameter of the Earth, and can emit high-energy particles.
Its high energy has been seen as a source of radiation and heat, but scientists have struggled to explain why this plasma is not getting reflected back by the planet.
A new study published in the journal Science has found that the solar corona does indeed have a surface, but only if the surface is rotating.
The study, led by researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Germany, compared the solar surface’s rotation to the rotation of the sun and found that this effect was very strong.
What’s more, this effect only occurs if the corona’s surface is tilted more than half the solar radius, which is approximately 20 degrees.
“It turns out that the coronal heating effect, which makes the sun’s surface appear hot, is very weak,” lead author Professor Matthias Zuber, from the Helmholtz Centre for Solar Physics in Germany told New Scientist.
Professor Zuber and his colleagues used NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency’s Solar Dynamics Observatory to study the coronas surface in space.
The team used the data to analyse how the coronic structure, the shape of the coronsed Sun, was affected by the rotation and the rotation’s direction.
The scientists found that, while the coronics surface rotates at a rate of about 0.02 radians per second, its rotation can be manipulated by tilting the coroon.
This, they found, can produce an effect that is not visible to the naked eye, but is present when the coros is tilted up to about 25 degrees.
In the video below, the team shows how the rotation is controlled.
“Our results suggest that the sun is rotating with respect to the Earth in the opposite direction,” said Professor Zuber.
“The sun’s rotation, which has a total of about 10 degrees, is rotating at a constant rate with respect the Earth.”
The corona, as a whole, also rotates in a straight line, but this direction is not seen when the surface’s surface tilts to a certain angle.
In this direction, the corondynamics of the surface can be used to create the appearance of a convection loop.
“This is a very interesting effect, and is a sign of convection,” Professor Zber said.
“We know that the convection in the corals can change the temperature of the Sun,” said Paula Wiesner, from The University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia.
“So if the convective loops of the solar atmosphere are stable, the convectivity can change to reflect that change.
This effect can be very interesting.”
The researchers hope that the findings will help scientists better understand the dynamics of convective systems and could lead to better understanding of solar magnetic fields.
The coronal rotation effect is not a new concept, but the current study is the first to investigate it using images of the entire corona.
If the coronia is rotating, it means that the surface of the planet has changed in an extremely dramatic way.
This is, in part, because the surface itself is moving with respect and rotation to its surroundings.
However, the researchers say this change could not have been detected in a model of the original corona that had no previous data.
“In a model that had only a limited amount of data, the model had a very limited amount to work with,” Professor Wiesener said.
“In our model, we are able to control the orientation of the atmosphere so that the planet appears to be rotating.
The only question now is, what will happen if we go further and have a more detailed model of this rotation?”
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